2003 MAZDASPEED Protegé

MAZDASPEED's first model came out in 2003, matching the class-leading handling of the compact Protegé 4-Door with a Callaway Garrett T25 turbocharger system, a suspension tuned by Racing Beat, 17" Racing Hart wheels plus over 1000 additional mods to the original model.

With 170 horsepower and a Tochigi Fuji limited slip differential to help put it to the ground, the MAZDASPEED was instantly a force to be reckoned with. Like the MAZDASPEED MX-5 Miata, the MAZDASPEED Protegé had a custom exterior and interior, with many of its enhancements coming right out of the MAZDASPEED catalog. A powerful Kenwood 250 watt stereo topped things off. With a balanced mix of acceleration, handling, appearance and sound, the success of this high-performance sport compact set the stage for the MAZDASPEED MX-5 Miata and all MAZDASPEED models to come.
Turbocharging Basics 101
An article from Import Racer! By Dino G. Tadokawa


All diagrams courtesy of Garrett Engine Boosting Systems

Today there are so many rumors and misconceptions associated with turbocharging and with this in mind we are here to help clear that up. This curriculum is not going to be another one of those typical "How to Turbocharge my Honda Civic" seminars. What will be covered in this class is a little more in-depth. It seems that almost every performance import vehicle out there is now turbocharged. Turbocharging equates to power, and having command of that power is the ultimate image that everyone wants to portray. As they say, "Image is everything, and power is the source," right? Well, if you want to harness that power you should definitely know what parts need to be integrated into your ride.

We at Import Racer! magazine felt it was important to get schooled in the correct way, so with our lofty connections we went directly to a giant in the turbocharger industry-Garrett. The Garrett Turbocharger brand name maintains its position as the largest provider of turbochargers in the world. This Fortune 500 company sells over nine million turbochargers annually and basically can be considered an authority with so much research, development and race-bred results under their belts.

It's All Cuz of Al: The Origin of Turbochargers

The principles of turbocharging have been around for more than 80 years. The first turbocharger design patent was given to a Swiss engineer by the name of Alfred Buchi in 1905. Buchi's invention was originally intended for the boosting of large frame ship and railway engines. However, when World War II broke out, turbochargers were used for boosting the power output and high altitude performance of wartime aircraft. Such famed war birds included the Boeing B-17 and B-29 high altitude bombers. Following the war, development of turbocharged engines for passenger car vehicles began. Just think, way back then it took only one gear-head techno-nerd with speed on his mind. With this idea in hand he eventually bolted one of these force fed boosting devices up to his car and went racing. Hence, the evolution of turbocharged race cars had its beginning.

Since then, almost every form of motorsport has utilized the turbocharger to enhance engine performance. In 1966, the first 2.6-liter four-cylinder Offenhauser turbocharged race engine was introduced at the Indy 500.

Turbochargers are the primary power boosters for the professional level Audi factory “werks” Le Mans race car as well as on today's premier Pro-Import Drag Racing factory efforts.

In 1976 a turbocharged Porsche won the grueling 24 hours at Le Mans. Renault was the first to introduce turbocharging to Formula 1 competition. This was the pinnacle of the F-1 racing heydays. It was so awesome to see a little turbocharged 1.5-liter engine generate over 1,200 horsepower in qualifying trim. As turbocharging became more popular in the racing arena, you began to see more varieties of engines with turbochargers hanging off of them. As popularity grew, turbochargers would have established themselves on anything from dual engine powered speed boats to a 200 psi, force fed, multi-staged, turbo-tractor pull rig. In the end, the need for forced induction has made its presence known from the salt flats at Bonneville to the clouds hovering below Pike's Peak. In today's professional factory backed “werks” racing programs turbochargers are used exclusively by winning teams in CART-Champ Car Racing, World Rally and at Le Mans. At this year's 24 Hours at Le Mans, Team Audi finished an astounding overall 1st, 2nd and 3rd places—all backed by the power of a turbocharger. Back on the home front, with all of the new Pro Import drag racing classes, the emergence of boosted Detroit iron domestic drag racing sanctioning bodies, turbochargers have become the primary choice as the proven power provider. The phrase “Got Boost” has now set precedence as a required standard in today's drag racing scene. So if you've ever won a race because of your turbo, you better thank Al. Now that you have some background knowledge, here's what next in the turbo zone.

What's Up Next

In our first session, we will discuss the basics of turbocharger design and operation. It will be a simplistic view of the functioning and operation of a turbocharger. We will also learn about the basic definitions and terminology used by those Turbo Guru extraordinaires at Garrett Engine Boosting Systems.

In our next session we will cover the application basics in turbocharger sizing and engine matching requirements. Knowledge gained here will help you when it comes time to select the right turbo for your specific vehicle needs. Also, purchasing guidelines and questions to consider when researching and planning your fire-breathing turbocharged engine will be covered in this basic course outline.

In the following session we will address the subject of turbocharger installation. Besides the turbocharger itself, we will cover aspects related to turbocharging plumbing requirements, engine modifications and ancillary control devices such as wastegates and compressor by-pass valves, and support systems. Also, installation pitfalls, trouble shooting, and the “do's and don'ts” will be covered in this session's presentation.

Finally, we will cap this course outline with the eye opening comparison between how production based turbochargers differ from that of true factory “werks” racing turbochargers. Included in this session will be design discussions on ball bearing turbochargers, ceramics and variable geometry. Also, for the sake of “boosting,” a good comparison between turbocharging and supercharging will be covered in this final course outline.

Turbocharger Systems Layout Diagram


And you thought you got off easy didn't you?

In order to prepare for the next class session you gotta review and gain a good understanding of the following turbocharger basic components and turbocharger systems diagrams. This is the required component for understanding our next class session on basic turbocharger design and operation. We'll be going into more depth using these diagrams so be sure to keep this issue handy for reference.

Turbocharger Schematic Flow Diagram

Basic Turbocharger Component Parts Diagram